2018-05 Audit 2.0 – GDPR Audit guide and checklist for Db2 z/OS

Or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Auditor

A guideline in 5 big Steps to Audit for Personal Data Protection

First up, this is not another Audit review and health check sell! We, and I mean especially in the European Union (EU), are about to get the biggest update to “my data”, “my right to know” and “my right to forget (delete)” that has ever happened, when the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPRKicks off on May 25th, 2018.

Who cares?

Well, we all should really! Very soon hordes of people could well start demanding to know if you have any data about them and if so where it is and who you give it to. Personal Data will be big business!

Age of Consent

Just assuming all is ok is also no longer valid or lawful – any personal data that you keep must be kept with the *active* consent of the data owner… This is going to get awfully messy awfully quickly! Do not forget that the definition of personal data has also changed quite a bit e.g. IP Addresses. For the record here is the actual text in the GDPR regulations:

Art. 4 GDPR Definitions

For the purposes of this Regulation:

1.      ‘personal data’ means any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person (‘data subject’); an identifiable natural person is one who can be identified, directly or indirectly, in particular by reference to an identifier such as a name, an identification number, location data, an online identifier or to one or more factors specific to the physical, physiological, genetic, mental, economic, cultural or social identity of that natural person;

And

Art. 9 GDPR Processing of special categories of personal data

1.      Processing of personal data revealing racial or ethnic origin, political opinions, religious or philosophical beliefs, or trade union membership, and the processing of genetic data, biometric data for the purpose of uniquely identifying a natural person, data concerning health or data concerning a natural person’s sex life or sexual orientation shall be prohibited.

Security by design and Security of processing

Very important are Articles 25 and 32:

Art. 25 GDPR Data protection by design and by default

1.       Taking into account the state of the art, the cost of implementation and the nature, scope, context and purposes of processing as well as the risks of varying likelihood and severity for rights and freedoms of natural persons posed by the processing, the controller shall, both at the time of the determination of the means for processing and at the time of the processing itself, implement appropriate technical and organisational measures, such as pseudonymisation, which are designed to implement data-protection principles, such as data minimisation, in an effective manner and to integrate the necessary safeguards into the processing in order to meet the requirements of this Regulation and protect the rights of data subjects.

2.       The controller shall implement appropriate technical and organisational measures for ensuring that, by default, only personal data which are necessary for each specific purpose of the processing are processed. That obligation applies to the amount of personal data collected, the extent of their processing, the period of their storage and their accessibility. In particular, such measures shall ensure that by default personal data are not made accessible without the individual’s intervention to an indefinite number of natural persons.

Last part of Paragraph two is important here.

Art. 32 GDPR Security of processing

1.      Taking into account the state of the art, the costs of implementation and the nature, scope, context and purposes of processing as well as the risk of varying likelihood and severity for the rights and freedoms of natural persons, the controller and the processor shall implement appropriate technical and organisational measures to ensure a level of security appropriate to the risk, including inter alia as appropriate:

1.      the pseudonymisation and encryption of personal data;

2.      the ability to ensure the ongoing confidentiality, integrity, availability and resilience of processing systems and services;

3.      the ability to restore the availability and access to personal data in a timely manner in the event of a physical or technical incident;

4.      a process for regularly testing, assessing and evaluating the effectiveness of technical and organisational measures for ensuring the security of the processing.

2.      In assessing the appropriate level of security account shall be taken in particular of the risks that are presented by processing, in particular from accidental or unlawful destruction, loss, alteration, unauthorised disclosure of, or access to personal data transmitted, stored or otherwise processed.

Here paragraphs 1.2, 1.4 and 2 are the biggies!

A small or large fine for you today?

The fines are also amazingly high. First, for the “minor” problem of being over 72 hours late when data leaks have occurred (a breach), is 2% of global turnover or €10,000,000 – whichever is *higher* and, if you are really naughty, like disregarding basic data laws, moving data abroad or ignoring an individual’s rights then you get hit for 4% of global turnover or €20,000,000 – again whichever is *higher*

First up?

I, for one, do not want to be the first company that makes the headlines… How about you?

Who are you afraid of?

Now I know that most of the talk about GDPR is “right to data” for the general public but we all know, as IT specialists, that the people to be really afraid of are ex-employees who did not leave on happy terms. They know *exactly* where the knife could best be put… They know exactly where, and on which platforms, all of the data really is.

Protect yourself – Due diligence

What can you do? Well the first thing is to actually understand what GDPR means to you and your firm’s data. Then you must be able to prove to auditors that you tried your very best. We will all probably get hacked at some time, but if you tried your best it is enough. Using all of the data you gather in a post-mortem, or for forensics, is also a very good idea as can be seen in paragraphs 2.3 and 2.4 below:

Art. 83 GDPR General conditions for imposing administrative fines

1. Each supervisory authority shall ensure that the imposition of administrative fines pursuant to this Article in respect of infringements of this Regulation referred to in paragraphs 4, 5 and 6 shall in each individual case be effective, proportionate and dissuasive.

 2. Administrative fines shall, depending on the circumstances of each individual case, be imposed in addition to, or instead of, measures referred to in points (a) to (h) and (j) of Article 58(2). When deciding whether to impose an administrative fine and deciding on the amount of the administrative fine in each individual case due regard shall be given to the following:

1. the nature, gravity and duration of the infringement taking into account the nature scope or purpose of the processing concerned as well as the number of data subjects affected and the level of damage suffered by them;

2. the intentional or negligent character of the infringement;

3. any action taken by the controller or processor to mitigate the damage suffered by data subjects;

4. the degree of responsibility of the controller or processor taking into account technical and organisational measures implemented by them pursuant to Articles 25 and 32;

The list goes on after these of course…

Db2 Audit – a new way?

Most sites use SMF and do daily cuts to then offload to a repository system of some sort on some sort of hardware. The problem here is that the amount of SMF data you are generating can swamp you and this method is not nearly quick enough. Waiting a day is 24 hours of the 72 that are available to you…

Faster, Better, Securer?

Can you do it faster?  Can you do it yourself faster?  Can you do it better? Maybe…

 

If you can handle OPx and a bit of High Level Assembler then “Bob’s your uncle!” as long as Bob is your Auditor of course…There are more than enough examples in the web about how to write and do OPx reading (There are even vendors that are willing to sell you their software 🙂 )


A guideline in 5 big steps to Audit in a new way for Personal Data protection :


1 – To do list – IFI commands, IFCIDS & Audit Class

Create a program that can issue the required IFI commands to start and stop traces and to issue the READA and READS IFI calls that you wish to have. If you don’t know which Audit Class is which IFCID – Here’s my handy list:

Audit ClassIFCIDsWhatWhy
1140Authorization failuresPossible brute force password attack
2141GRANTs and REVOKEsPossible temporary raising of privilege
3142CREATE/ALTER/DROP of table with AUDIT attributeRemoving the AUDIT attribute is a big red flag
41431st Change of table with AUDIT attributeSensitive data updates
51441st Select of table with AUDIT attributeSensitive data usage
6145BIND/PREPARE using table with AUDIT attributePossible usage of sensitive data
755, 83, 87, 169, 319SET CURRENT SQLID, end of identify, end of signon CICS/IMSElevation of privilege
823, 24, 25, 219, 220Db2 UtilitiesUNLOADing data to where?
9146, 392For customer usen/a
10269, 270, 271*

 

271 is not started automatically with Class 10

Establish reuse trusted context, trusted context CREATE/ALTER and Column Mask/Row Permission CREATE/DROP/ALTERAnything with MASKs or ROW Permissions must be checked
11361Successful accessOnly makes sense if working with AUDIT POLICY SYSADMIN or DBADMIN

So, what is missing from this picture?

Well, what about the COMMANDs to actually see what people are issuing on the machine? So you must also add IFCIDs 90 and 91. Then you do not see any of the DDL so you must start IFCID 62 to get that as you do want to see what people are ALTERing, creating and dropping don’t you?


2 – All done in design?

Once you have a system that gathers all these you must buffer them in memory and then do one of two things:

1) Write them out to a file for post-processing and enrichment later
2) Directly write them to your SIEM system of choice

I am not a fan of number 2 because if the SIEM system cannot accept the data then your data is lost…

With No. 1 you can keep processing even if the SIEM system cannot ingest, for whatever reason, and as long as you trigger yourself every 5 – 10 minutes or when the OPx buffer is full then that is “real time” enough for me!


3 – Care for something else for the weekend?


Plus you can enrich the data with extra stuff that the naked IFCIDs do not have attached to them e.g. map dbid/psid to a real database and tablespace etc.


Store all of this data in a bunch of Db2 tables


then kick-off a Db2 to a LEEF re-formatter program that reads all the audit data that has been collected since last time


writes it all out.


4 – Code Page – don’t forget the Code Page

Then you must do an ICONV for code page conversion, swiftly followed by a gzip to get it down to size and then copy it down to a USS file ready for your SIEM system to ingest its prey.


5 – Done, Finished and Complete

To prove that this system is always available you should also schedule a simple

GRANT SELECT ON SYSIBM.SYSDUMMY1 TO PUBLIC;

Every morning at 06:00 which you should see in the output every day. Remember – Due Diligence!


 

So now you are done and finished and can let the SIEM system do the completion!

 

As always, any questions or comments would be most welcome!

TTFN,

Roy Boxwell

PS: Please note that the bold of parts of the GDPR text is only from me!

Atlanta DB2 Users Group March 2017

Meet us at the Atlanta DB2 Users Group, March 2017 in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. ADUG

SEGUS & SOFTWARE ENGINEERING present

On March 17th, 2017

Don’t let ICIs put your DB2 application in the ICU! – How to discover incompatible changespdf

The what and why of ICIs

If you’ve been paying close attention, you will have noticed that over the course of the past couple releases of DB2 for z/OS, IBM has been making changes that can modify the behavior of your DB2 application programs. The number of incompatible changes being introduced by IBM started off slowly in DB2 9 but has grown to a significant number today. So much so that there are ways to trace incompatible changes (using IFCIDs and ICIs, or Incompatible Change Indicators), as well as methods to repress the changes, even if only for a period of time.

Ways to deal with incompatibilities

This session will discuss the incompatible changes, their potential impact on your applications, as well as provide guidance on how to tackle the whole experience. And you’ll also see how SEG’s Workload Expert technology makes it easier to manage and control these incompatible changes. With all of this information at your disposal, you can make sure that your DB2 applications do not wind up in the ICU (intensive care unit)!

Customer experiences 

Now that we all know everything about ICI’s, let us have a look at how the separately licensable BIF/ICI Use Case of  WorkloadExpert can help you find where the “bad guys” are and how to continuously check that everything is ok. This presentation will show how you can find out ICI Details for static and dynamic SQL, and then we will show real customer results from a “BiF hunt”.

Speaker Biography

Ulf Heinrich is the Director of Solutions Delivery at SEGUS Inc. He specializes in DB2 recovery issues and database maintenance, focusing on the growing requirement for cost reduction and 24×7 operations. As a consultant, at large customer sites, he has implemented database maintenance procedures and recovery strategies, and also experienced the pitfalls of recovery scenarios under real‐world recovery pressure. His activities cover EMEA, as well as North America through SE’s U.S. subsidiary, SEGUS Inc. He’s involved in the development of SE’s maintenance and recovery solutions. And of course a big support of the Atlanta DB2 Users Group.

IDUG 2016 DB2 European Tech Conference

SEGUS & SOFTWARE ENGINEERING present


“Access Path Recovery for DB2 11 & 12 using RUNSTATS Rescue”

November 15th, 2016
What is the number one reason for bad access paths? Bad statistics!

Why do you have bad statistics? Bad timing is the number one reason, followed by manually updated stats and then forgotten about.

RUNSTATS Rescue for DB2 z/OS saves you when these events happen. The basis is a complete copy of all productive required statistical data in the DB2 catalog. This should be regularly executed and the data saved away. The best way to do this is to use a Generation Gengroup which automatically stores “copies” of the data. RUNSTATS Rescue then provides a front end where you can use a variety of inputs to get back you good access paths.

  • Dynamic SQL, Static SQL completely covered
  • Why PLAN Stability doesn’t save you when you need it
  • What’s new in DB2 12 for Dynamic SQL that still will not save you

Audience experience Level

Beginner, Intermediate, Advanced

Speaker Biography

Roy Boxwell has more than 30 years of experience in MVS, OS/390, and z/OS environments – 26 of those in DB2. He specializes in installation, migration, and performance monitoring and tuning. Roy leads the SEG development team responsible for the real time database maintenance solutions. He is also an active participant, speaker and contributor on the IDUG DB2 Listserv and sends out a monthly DB2 z/OS Newsletter.


“Compliance with compliments! Viable DB2 z/OS workload tracking”.

November 16th, 2016

Audit and Compliance is a need that many companies want and have to fulfill.

There’s different ways and tools that promise to be able to do it, but what can they really do and what are the associated costs? This presentation introduces DB2 10/11 technology exploitation that delivers any DML, DDL, DCL being executed in a DB2 environment along with identification details. Learn how you can run Audit analytics against a long‐term repository, pinpointing who executed a query, when and from where. Analyze your entire workload to understand access patterns and abnormalities.

Audience experience Level

Beginner, Intermediate, Advanced

Objectives

 Objective 1Audit needs and musts Take a journey to GLB HIPAA PCI‐DSS Basel III Sarbanes‐Oxley CA SB1386 Federal Information Security Management Act “ed Flag”Rules (FRCA)5.
 Objective 2Solution overview and their Pros/Cons Get an overview about the existing solutions and understand how they work.
 Objective 3 The viable way – let DB2 do the magic! Learn about DB2 enhancements in DB2 10/11 that deliver the DB2 workload being processed and understand why it’s so efficient.
 Objective 4 Customer results from the banking industry Receive some experience from a large banking company and how they successfully replaced their DB2 Audit feature based reporting by a modern SQL tracking and analytics process.


Speaker biography

Ulf Heinrich is the Director of Solutions Delivery at SOFTWARE ENGINEERING GmbH. He specializes in DB2 recovery issues and database maintenance, focusing on the growing requirement for cost reduction and 24×7 operations. As a consultant at large customer sites, he has implemented database maintenance procedures and recovery strategies, and also experienced the pitfalls of recovery scenarios under real‐world recovery pressure. His activities cover EMEA, as well as North America through SE’ U.S. subsidiary, SEGUS Inc. He’ involved in the development of SE’ maintenance andrecovery Solutions.

The Delaware Valley DB2 Users Group

SEGUS & SOFTWARE ENGINEERING present

DVDUG – on Wednesday September 28th 2016

Compliance with compliments! Viable DB2 z/OS workload tracking.

Audit and Compliance is a need that many companies want and have to fulfill.

There’s different ways and tools that promise to be able to do it, but what can they really do and what are the associated costs? This presentation introduces DB2 10/11 technology exploitation that delivers any DML, DDL, DCL being executed in a DB2 environment along with identification details. Learn how you can run Audit analytics against a long‐term repository, pinpointing who executed a query, when and from where. Analyze your entire workload to understand access patterns and abnormalities.

1-Audit needs and musts
Take a journey to GLB HIPAA PCI‐DSS Basel III Sarbanes‐Oxley CA SB1386 Federal Information Security Management Act “ed Flag”Rules (FRCA)5.
2-Solution overview and their Pros/Cons
Get an overview about the existing solutions and understand how they work.
3-The viable way – let DB2 do the magic!
Learn about DB2 enhancements in DB2 10/11 that deliver the DB2 workload being processed and understand why it’s so efficient.
4-Customer results from the banking industry
Receive some experience from a large banking company and how they successfully replaced their DB2 Audit feature based reporting by a modern SQL tracking and analytics process.

 

Tridex September 2016

SEGUS & SOFTWARE ENGINEERING present

TRIDEX – on Tuesday September 27th, 2016

Compliance with compliments! Viable DB2 z/OS workload tracking.

Audit and Compliance is a need that many companies want and have to fulfill.

There’s different ways and tools that promise to be able to do it, but what can they really do and what are the associated costs? This presentation introduces DB2 10/11 technology exploitation that delivers any DML, DDL, DCL being executed in a DB2 environment along with identification details. Learn how you can run Audit analytics against a long‐term repository, pinpointing who executed a query, when and from where. Analyze your entire workload to understand access patterns and abnormalities.

1-Audit needs and musts
Take a journey to GLB HIPAA PCI‐DSS Basel III Sarbanes‐Oxley CA SB1386 Federal Information Security Management Act “ed Flag”Rules (FRCA)5.
2-Solution overview and their Pros/Cons
Get an overview about the existing solutions and understand how they work.
3-The viable way – let DB2 do the magic!
Learn about DB2 enhancements in DB2 10/11 that deliver the DB2 workload being processed and understand why it’s so efficient.
4-Customer results from the banking industry
Receive some experience from a large banking company and how they successfully replaced their DB2 Audit feature based reporting by a modern SQL tracking and analytics process.

 

Wisconsin DB2 Users Group September 2016

SEGUS & SOFTWARE ENGINEERING present

WDUG – on Tuesday September 14th, 2016

Don’t let ICIs put your DB2 application in the ICU!

How to discover incompatible changes in your DB2 System

The what and why of ICIs
If you’ve been paying close attention, you will have noticed that over the course of the past couple releases of DB2 for z/OS, IBM has been making changes that can modify the behavior of your DB2 application programs. The number of incompatible changes being introduced by IBM started off slowly in DB2 9 but has grown to a significant number today. So much so that there are ways to trace incompatible changes (using IFCIDs and ICIs, or Incompatible Change Indicators), as well as methods to repress the changes, even if only for a period of time.
Ways to deal with incompatibilities
This session will discuss the incompatible changes, their potential impact on your applications, as well as provide guidance on how to tackle the whole experience. And you’ll also see how SEG’s Workload Expert technology makes it easier to manage and control these incompatible changes. With all of this information at your disposal, you can make sure that your DB2 applications do not wind up in the ICU (intensive care unit)!
Customer experiences
Now that we all know everything about ICI’s, let us have a look at how the separatly licensable BIF/ICI Use Case of  WorkloadExpert can help you find where the “bad guys” are and how to continuously check that everything is ok. This presentation will show how you can find out ICI Details for static and dynamic SQL, and then we will show real customer results from a “BiF hunt”.

Speaker’s biography

Ulf Heinrich is the Director of Solutions Delivery at SOFTWARE ENGINEERING GmbH. He specializes in DB2 recovery issues and database maintenance, focusing on the growing requirement for cost reduction and 24×7 operations. As a consultant at large customer sites, he has implemented database maintenance procedures and recovery strategies, and also experienced the pitfalls of recovery scenarios under real‐world recovery pressure. His activities cover EMEA, as well as North America through SE’ U.S. subsidiary, SEGUS Inc. He’s involved in the development of SE’ maintenance and recovery Solutions.

Heart of America DB2 Users Group September 2016

SEGUS & SOFTWARE ENGINEERING present

HOADUG – on Monday September 12th, 2016

Compliance with compliments! Viable DB2 z/OS workload tracking.

Audit and Compliance is a need that many companies want and have to fulfill.

There’s different ways and tools that promise to be able to do it, but what can they really do and what are the associated costs? This presentation introduces DB2 10/11 technology exploitation that delivers any DML, DDL, DCL being executed in a DB2 environment along with identification details. Learn how you can run Audit analytics against a long‐term repository, pinpointing who executed a query, when and from where. Analyze your entire workload to understand access patterns and abnormalities.

1-Audit needs and musts
Take a journey to GLB HIPAA PCI‐DSS Basel III Sarbanes‐Oxley CA SB1386 Federal Information Security Management Act “ed Flag”Rules (FRCA)5.
2-Solution overview and their Pros/Cons
Get an overview about the existing solutions and understand how they work.
3-The viable way – let DB2 do the magic!
Learn about DB2 enhancements in DB2 10/11 that deliver the DB2 workload being processed and understand why it’s so efficient.
4-Customer results from the banking industry
Receive some experience from a large banking company and how they successfully replaced their DB2 Audit feature based reporting by a modern SQL tracking and analytics process.

Don’t let ICIs put your DB2 application in the ICU!

How to discover incompatible changes in your DB2 System

The what and why of ICIs
If you’ve been paying close attention, you will have noticed that over the course of the past couple releases of DB2 for z/OS, IBM has been making changes that can modify the behavior of your DB2 application programs. The number of incompatible changes being introduced by IBM started off slowly in DB2 9 but has grown to a significant number today. So much so that there are ways to trace incompatible changes (using IFCIDs and ICIs, or Incompatible Change Indicators), as well as methods to repress the changes, even if only for a period of time.
Ways to deal with incompatibilities
This session will discuss the incompatible changes, their potential impact on your applications, as well as provide guidance on how to tackle the whole experience. And you’ll also see how SEG’s Workload Expert technology makes it easier to manage and control these incompatible changes. With all of this information at your disposal, you can make sure that your DB2 applications do not wind up in the ICU (intensive care unit)!
Customer experiences
Now that we all know everything about ICI’s, let us have a look at how the separatly licensable BIF/ICI Use Case of  WorkloadExpert can help you find where the “bad guys” are and how to continuously check that everything is ok. This presentation will show how you can find out ICI Details for static and dynamic SQL, and then we will show real customer results from a “BiF hunt”.

Speaker’s biography

Ulf Heinrich is the Director of Solutions Delivery at SOFTWARE ENGINEERING GmbH. He specializes in DB2 recovery issues and database maintenance, focusing on the growing requirement for cost reduction and 24×7 operations. As a consultant at large customer sites, he has implemented database maintenance procedures and recovery strategies, and also experienced the pitfalls of recovery scenarios under real‐world recovery pressure. His activities cover EMEA, as well as North America through SE’ U.S. subsidiary, SEGUS Inc. He’s involved in the development of SE’ maintenance and recovery Solutions.

2016-08 – Is it Safe? How to recover accidently dropped tables

Do you have the DDL anywhere?
Was there a “recent” image copy or disk back-up? Who can you call for help?

The newsletter title this month is really nothing to do with the film “Marathon Man”, but sometimes backup and recovery can feel just like having your teeth drilled… Anyway, the title is actually meant to get you to think again about your site’s back-up and recovery definitions—specifically that age-old chestnut about “accidently” dropped objects.

RECOVER from DROP?

I saw in LISTSERV a discussion about recovering from dropped tables and tablespaces. It is a pretty horrible situation when you realize that you just confirmed the drop of a test table to then suddenly see that, as your finger is descending towards the ENTER key, that it is, in fact, a different name…
recover accidently dropped db2 zos table based on DDL extraction

DDL and Back-ups Handy?

Normally, at this point, the air is filled with colorful language and interesting local metaphors. Once it has calmed down a bit the real work starts: Do you have the DDL anywhere? Was there a “recent” image copy, or a disk back-up? Who can you call for help?

Mirror Mirror on the wall

Remember that mirroring etc. will not help you as the DROP has also been successfully mirrored. So within a moment, the data was also dropped at your disaster recovery site. (Argh!)

Newbies then start looking in SYSIBM.SYSCOPY for the last image copies, while us grey-haired oldies more mature experts start looking in production control copy libraries and BETA92!

The heat is on!

At this point a couple of things happen: The telephone starts ringing and a manager-type person materializes to ask annoying questions all the time. Typically: “How long will it take to get the data back?”

Now you have two possibilities:

    1. You are in luck! Someone somewhere extracted all the DDL for the table(s) with DBID, PSID, and OBID(s) so you could generate a DSN1COPY job from the last found Image Copy dataset

recover accidently dropped db2 zos table based on DDL extraction

2. You are *not* in luck! You have no idea how the table looks, and you cannot see if anyone ALTERed it in the last five years or so.

Crashed and Burned

If you are in position 2, it is now a good time to update your CV and make sure your desk is neat and tidy… Now you might have access to some nifty third party vendor tools, but for that you must at least have the dataset name of the last Image Copy and—of course—the third party tool itself! Or the ability to read the DB2 log and “resurrect” the table defs from there—Not a pretty place to go I assure you!

Back up that chain of thought for a Moment

So let’s rewind and imagine that you are doing this all differently… What about beginning today with an extract of all the DDL on your system? Then capture all of the IFCID 62’s that show any DDL changes. Going further: what about getting all of the IFCID 220’s to get dataset allocations correlated with Utility IDs and DBIDs and PSIDs.

Imagine what you could then do?

Wow! Cavalry over the hill

Yep, you have a ”history” of all the DDL that has happened on your machine right up to the point when your object was DROPed *and* you have the dataset name(s) of the last image copies, as well as all the internal IDs to enable a successful DSN1COPY job complete with OBID translation! Cool huh? So suddenly you are now a hero instead of a villain!
recover accidently dropped db2 zos table based on DDL extraction

recover accidently dropped db2 zos table based on DDL extraction

DIY or Buy in?

So much for the theory – What about in practice? Well you can write it all yourself, or you could use this as a sort of useful side effect from our WorkloadExpert (WLX) software, which has all this built in! We already get all these IFCIDs, we already have a DDL Generator bundled with the WLX software for the Audit Use Cases, and so it really kills two birds with one stone!

Restricted movement?

Now, of course, you could argue:“Wait! I have RESTRICT ON DROP set for all my productive tables!” Now this works really well for accidental drops, but I have seen lots of places where it should be used but was in fact forgotten. How can you check? Run this little SQL to validate that what you think is true really is true:

recover accidently dropped db2 zos table based on DDL extraction

SELECT COUNT(*) AS TABLES                                     
       ,COUNT(CASE WHEN CLUSTERTYPE = 'Y' THEN 1 ELSE NULL END) 
                 AS DROP_RESTRICT                               
       ,COUNT(CASE WHEN CLUSTERTYPE = ' ' THEN 1 ELSE NULL END) 
                 AS NOT_DROP_RESTRICT                           
FROM SYSIBM.SYSTABLES                                         
WHERE     TYPE   IN ('T' , 'M' , 'H' , 'R' )

  AND NOT DBNAME IN ('DSNDB01' , 'DSNDB06' )

WITH UR
 ;

 

I hope the results do‘nt have you feeling like Dustin Hoffman in the movie .

As usual any questions or comments are welcome,

TTFN Roy Boxwell

2016-05 What’s in an Acronym? ICI

Do you know the difference between BIF & ICI?

Release migration: Do you know which role ICIs are playing in the Db2 compatibility?

Just over a year ago I did a little newsletter all about IFICDs 366 and 376, what I call BIFCIDs, that report usage of a function that has changed or a function that works now, but will either fail or work differently, at some point in the future, e.g.: after a Db2 release migration.

When is a BiF not a BiF?

Now, back then I labelled these guys “BIFCIDs” and asked: “Where’s the BiF?” I see now that the name I chose was actually pretty inaccurate! If you take the time to study the macro versions of 366 and 376 (all described in the SDSNMACS library member DSNDQW05) you see that from the 22 IFCIDs only six are actually for a Built-in Function “problem” – all the rest are really ICIs.

What’s an ICI? It’s a TLA (another nice acronym), from Db2 development and stands for “Incompatible Change Indicator”. A really catchy name for a really nasty problem! So let us review the IFCID details, but now from the perspective of “Are you a BIFCID or are you an ICI?”

 

The details for BIFCIDs – die BIFs der IFCIDS list

***********************************************************************
**  QW0366FN = 1                                                      *
**    Indicates that the pre Version 10 CHAR built-in function has    *
**    been invoked. There is an incompatible change to the output of  *
**    the CHAR function for some decimal data. The zparm              *
**    BIF_COMPATIBILITY and/or the SYSCOMPAT_V9 schema have been used *
**    by this application to get the old behavior. Please make the    *
**    appropriate changes and rebind with the SYSCURRENT schema to    *
**    use the Version 10 CHAR(decimal) built-in function.             *
**    (PM29124 V10 only, usermod V8/V9)                               *
**  QW0366FN = 2                                                      *
**    Indicates that the pre Version 10 VARCHAR built-in function or  *
**    CAST(decimal AS CHAR or VARCHAR) has been invoked.              *
**  QW0366FN = 10                                                     *
**   RTRIM, LTRIM or STRIP version 9 being used with mixed data       *
**  QW0366FN = 1109                                                   *
**    Indicates that CAST(string AS TIMESTAMP) was processed for the  *
**    input string of length 8 and input was treated as a store clock *
**    value (or input string was of length 13 and was treated as a    *
**    GENERATE_UNIQUE value). This behavior is incorrect for a CAST   *
**    and is valid for TIMESTAMP built-in function only. This behavior*
**    is being corrected in Db2 11 so that input to CAST is not       *
**    treated as a store clock value nor GENERATE_UNIQUE.             *
**  QW0366FN = 1110                                                   *
**    Indicates the integer argument of SPACE function is greater     *
**    than 32764.                                                     *
**  QW0366FN = 1111                                                   *
**    Indicates the optional integer argument of VARCHAR function     *
**    has a value greater than 32764.                                 *
***********************************************************************

 

IFCIDS list follow: the details for ICIs

***********************************************************************
**  QW0366FN = 3                                                      *
**    Indicates that an unsupported character representation of a     *
**    timestamp string was used. PM48741 V10 only.                    *
**  QW0366FN = 4                                                      *
**   A QW0366FN 4 record indicates that the statement uses the        *
**    word ARRAY_EXISTS as an unqualified user-defined function name  *
**    in a context that may be incompatible with Version 11.          *
**  QW0366FN = 5                                                      *
**    A QW0366FN 5 record indicates that the statement uses the       *
**    word CUBE as an unqualified user-defined function name          *
**    in a context that may be incompatible with Version 11.          *
**  QW0366FN = 6                                                      *
**   A QW0366FN 6 record indicates that the statement uses the        *
**    word ROLLUP as an unqualified user-defined function name        *
**    in a context that may be incompatible with Version 11.          *
**  QW0366FN = 7                                                      *
**   A QW0366FN 7 record indicates that Db2 for z/OS server issued    *
**   a SQLCODE -301 for incompatible data type conversion from        *
**   string data type (e.g. CHAR, VARCHAR, GRAPHIC, VARGRAPHIC        *
**   etc.) to numeric data type in V10 CM mode when implicit          *
**   cast is not supported or V10 NFM mode when DDF_COMPATIBILITY     *
**   zparm is set to DISABLE_IMPCAST_NJV or SP_PARMS_NJV to           *
**   disable implicit cast, and the client is CLI driver              *
**   or v11 NFM mode & APPLCOMPAT = V10R1 when DDF_COMPATIBILITY      *
**   is set to SP_PARMS_NJV or DISABLE_IMPCAST_NJV to disable         *
**   implicit cast either from string data type to numeric or         *
**   from numeric data type to string data type.                      *
**  QW0366FN = 8                                                      *
**   A QW0366FN 8 record indicates that Db2 for z/OS server           *
**   returned output data match the data types of the                 *
**   corresponding CALL statement arguments when DDF_COMPATIBILITY    *
**   zparm is set to SP_PARMS_NJV.                                    *
**                                                                    *
**  QW0366FN = 9                                                      *
**    A QW0366FN 9 record indicates a data type conversion from       *
**    a TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE input to a TIMESTAMP data            *
**    during input host variable bind-in process on server when       *
**    DDF_COMPATIBILITY zparm is set to IGNORE_TZ to ignore the       *
**    time zone information sent by Java IBM Data Server Driver.      *
**  QW0366FN = 1101                                                   *
**    Indicates that the INSERT statement that inserts into an XML    *
**    column without XMLDOCUMENT function has been processed (which   *
**    should result in SQLCODE -20345 when run on Db2 release prior   *
**    to V11). Starting with V11, SQL error will no longer be issued. *
**    Application will no longer recieve SQLCODE for this statement.  *
**  QW0366FN = 1102                                                   *
**    Indicates that V10 XPath evaluation behavior was in effect which*
**    resulted in an error. For instance, a data type conversion error*
**    could have occured for a predicate that would otherwise be      *
**    evaluated to false. Starting from V11, such "irrelevant" errors *
**    might be suppressed so an application might no longer recieve   *
**    the SQLCODE for this statement.                                 *
**  QW0366FN = 1103                                                   *
**    Indicates that a dynamic SQL uses the ASUTime limit that has    *
**    been set for the entire thread for RLF reactive governing.      *
**    For instance, when a dynamic SQL is processed from package A,   *
**    if the ASUTime limit is already set during other dynamic SQL    *
**    processing from package B in the same thread, the SQL from      *
**    package A will use the ASUTime limit set during the SQL         *
**    processing from package B. Stating with v11, dynamic SQLs from  *
**    multiple packages will use the ASUTime limit that is set        *
**    considering its own package information.                        *
**  QW0366FN = 1104, 1105, 1106, 1107                                 *
**    Indicates that CLIENT special register (CLIENT_USERID,          *
**    CLIENT_WRKSTNNAME, CLIENT_APPLNAME, CLIENT_ACCTNG) has been set *
**    to a value that is longer than what is supported prior to V11.  *
**    A shorter value has been used instead.                          *
**  QW0366FN = 1108                                                   *
**    Indicates that CLIENT special register (CLIENT_USERID,          *
**    CLIENT_WRKSTNNAME, CLIENT_APPLNAME, CLIENT_ACCTNG) has been set *
**    to a value that is longer than what is supported prior to V11.  *
**    Truncated values upto the supported lengths prior to v11 have   *
**    been used for RLF table search instead.                         *
**  QW0366FN = 1112                                                   *
**   Indicates the empty XML element is serialized to <X></X>         *
**   instead of <X/>.                                                 *
***********************************************************************

What does this all mean?

You might well be wondering: “What’s the point?” Well, the point is to try and get the ICI’s acknowledged in your company and to start checking for them now. Why do I say this? Because the APPLCOMPAT is only going to work for two down levels. What that means is that APPLCOMPAT at Db2 10 is good for Db2 11 and Db2 12 but *dies* horribly at Db2 12 +1 which, if IBM stick to their track record of Db2 delivery dates, will be October 2019. Not that far away in the future is it?

 

The BiF problem is fixed – long live the ICI Problem!

OK, you might have traced and tracked your BIFs, but what about the ICIs? At one firm I visited, all the BIFCIDs were clean until this February which, as a leap year, had 29 days. This caused different programs to run and…Tra La! New BIFCIDs came creeping out of the woodwork…along with some new ICIs…

 

Freeware to the rescue

To help you save time, just download and test our little BiF Freeware, which tracks down all ICIs and BiFs for you. Register, download, and then see where your system stands in the ICI rankings. We have also changed our Use Case “BIF usage” in WorkloadExpert to be only for BiFs and have introduced a new Use Case called “BIF/ICI occurrences” which shows them all.

As usual, any question or comments gladly welcome!

 

TTFN

Roy Boxwell

GIVE and TAKE Program

1,2,3


Give and Take 2020

Information on the Give and Take Programs 4,5,6,7


Previous Give & Take

We have “GIVEn” various free-of-charge Use Cases from our SQL WorkloadExpert for Db2 z/OS like:

1 Index Maintenance Costs

2 EXPLAIN Suppression

3 BIF Usage

Limited free-of-Charge Db2 Application

This Program started in Europe, during our 30th anniversary was such a success, that it is now being Extended for the benefit of North American Db2 z/OS sites.

<a href="http://www.seg.de/produkte/db2-zos-produkte/sql-workloadexpert-for-db2-zos/" target="


Index Maintenance Costs, EXPLAIN Suppression, BIF

Limited free-of-Charge Db2 Application

This Program started in Europe, during our 30th anniversary was such a success, that it is now being Extended for the benefit of North American Db2 z/OS sites.

SQL WorkloadExpert for Db2 z/OS (WLX) contains several “Use Cases”. We provided three of them, free of charge, for one month to different sites. In return, we received their results. We’d like to share this with you now.

We have “GIVEn” various free-of-charge Use Cases from SQL Workload Expert for Db2 z/OS like
1  Index Maintenance Costs
2  EXPLAIN Suppression
3  BIF Usage 
BIX HealthCheck – This last one is still available
We TAKE the anonymized results for research
and will communicate with the local User Groups for discussions

Inspiring experiences

Customer Statements

3BIF USAGE
News
Read the Customer Comments across the Industry 

 

  • Health Care
  • Insurance
  • Banking
  • Car Manufacturing

First results from Db2 z/OS sites

1Index Mantenance CostsNearly all the data we got back showed a positive result for created Indexes…
2EXPLAIN SuppressionAbout 10% of SQLs are actually “left over”…
3 BIF Usage When migrating to a new Db2 version, the BIFs are not always compatible and an extreme amount of data is produced.

 

The difficulty of near-time analysis to track down BIFs within dynamic SQL have been solved with the BIF Usage Use Case…

 [Results from Db2 z/OS sites]

Program 3 – BIF Usage –  has now started

BIF-Usage

 

Presentation

BIF CompatibilityDb2 10 compatibility mode
Changes to the STRING formating of decimal data within the CHAR and VARCHAR built-in function and to the CAST specification with CHAR and VARCHAR result types as well as  UNSUPPORTED TIMESTAMP STRINGs.
White PaperFinding BIFsAnd How to Lead a Problem-Free Life With Them in the Future
Navigating the Challenges of moving to a new Db2 Release
Newsletter2015-01 – BIFCIDS – Where’s the BIF?How will you deal with loop-hole usage in production code?
VideoBIF Usage(11min.) Trap  and correct the BIFs that will cause belly-ache one day soon

BIF Usage video